Rescale 미팅 예약

EU

국제사회, 이슬람 극단주의 이데올로기 문제 해결에 더 많은 노력 촉구

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급진 이슬람Islamic extremism and the ideology that drives it is corrosive to the fabric of democracy and threatens to “spread through the generations” unless effective and urgent preventive measures are taken.

그것은 급진화에 관해 브뤼셀에서 열린 세간의 이목을 끄는 브리핑에서 나온 핵심 메시지 중 하나였습니다.

이번 브리핑은 유럽민주주의재단(European Foundation for Democracy)이 평화연구소(Institute of Peace), 극단주의 반대 프로젝트(Counter Extremism Project), 주 EU 미국 대표부의 지원을 받아 조직했다.

It heard that effective prevention policies would be needed to help dissuade often impressionable young Muslim men and women from falling into the clutches of extremists such as ISIL, the so-called “death cult” responsible for the recent Paris atrocity and downing of a Russian civilian aircraft.

화요일(1월 XNUMX일) XNUMX시간 동안 진행된 토론에는 미국 이슬람 의회의 Zainab Al-Suwaij 국장과 급진화 인식 네트워크(RAN) 교육 실무 그룹의 공동 의장인 Karin Heremans 등 대서양 양쪽의 연사들이 참석했습니다.

행사를 시작하면서 브뤼셀에 본부를 둔 유럽 민주주의 재단의 알렉산더 리츠만(Alexander Ritzmann)은 행사의 목적 중 하나가 폭력적인 극단주의에 대응하는 모범 사례를 공유하는 것이라고 말했습니다.

Al-Suwaij, whose organization was launched in the wake of the 9/11 terror attacks in New York, said the results of Islamic extremism were now “haunting” both the Islamic world and the West almost on a “daily basis” and explained how US radicalization programmes had sought to tackle the issue.

광고

그녀는 자신의 조직이 젊은이들이 급진화되는 것을 막기 위해 12,000년 동안 미국 전역의 75개 대학 캠퍼스에서 약 XNUMX명에게 혜택을 주는 인식 제고 프로그램을 운영해 왔다고 말했습니다.

She said her experience suggested it was important to monitor carefully the activities of extremist preachers at mosques and Islamic schools in order to prevent some of them spreading “messages of hate.”

Al-Suwaij는 미국 모스크에서 이만(Iman)의 극단주의 가르침을 FBI에 신고하여 그 사람이 추방된 사례를 예로 들었습니다.

In offering a counter narrative to such people it was important, she argued, to “mobilize” communities and also make full use of social media which, she pointed out, has become a crucial recruitment tool for Islamic extremists.

Developing effective “social programmes” for those young Muslims who return to their homelands in Europe and the U.S from Syria and such places was also necessary.

Society also had to “make a clear distinction” between “Islam, the religion” and “political Islam or Islamism” adding, “Most of the problems we are facing today are caused by political Islam and unless good prevention measures are put in place Islamic extremism is corrosive to democracy that will spread through the generations.”

She told the meeting: “We in the US are much more aware of these problems nowadays but the violent messages of hate some of these people spread is sometimes beyond comprehension. Preventing young people becoming radicalised is a big problem but that is the challenge we face.

“We have to get the message across that the threat is not only to the West but to Islamic communities which are losing their young to groups like Islamic State.”

Some examples of best practice in Europe were outlined by Heremans, whose RAN working group was just established and also includes a “Centre of Excellence” which allows grassroots activists to share information and experience on tackling radicalization more easily.

An informal “manifesto” had been devised for dissemination to dozens of schools, training programmes for educators, as well as training for front line professionals at local, provincial, federal and EU levels – to address this burgeoning threat in schools. It encourages teachers to develop a “vision” on radicalization and openly hold potentially “difficult conversations” on the issue. We are faced with a generational challenge, she said.

She said: “We are saying to schools, ‘dare to communicate’ this issue and develop policies in much the same way as was done in the past for issues such as drug abuse and health and safety.”

Heremans, who is also principal of the Royal Atheneum School in Antwerp, readily accepts that this is not always easy, citing the example of when she tried to organise a minute’s silence at her school for victims of 9/11.

The school has students from 60 countries, including conflict zones such as Iraq and Syria, and she said that managing “tensions” within the school could be difficult.

“What we did after the Paris attacks on 13 November,” she explained, “was to extend the minute’s silence so that it was a tribute to all victims of extremism, not just those killed in Paris. The aim was not to avoid confrontation but, rather, to connect with all our students.”

She also noted that it was necessary to give young Muslims a “sense of belonging,” adding: “We conducted a survey at our school in which we tried to establish who felt they had the strongest identity. We found that it was the Muslim students whose identity was the strongest. The problem is that this is what can make some of them so susceptible to radicalisation. We have to find ways of making them feel a better sense of belonging to their own local communities.”

Heremans는 또한 급진화를 논의할 때 특히 헝가리, 그리스 등 유럽 국가에서 극우파 집단과 이슬람 극단주의가 제기하는 위협이 커지고 있음을 인식하는 것이 중요하다고 주장합니다.

회의에서는 극우 운동에서 벗어나 새로운 삶을 시작하려는 사람들을 돕는 이니셔티브인 EXIT-Germany에 대해 들었습니다.

전 네오나치 지도자인 잉고 하셀바흐(Ingo Hasselbach)가 공동 창립한 이 프로젝트는 2000년부터 극단적이고 폭력적인 우익 환경에서 중퇴한 사람들에게 지원을 제공하기 위해 노력해 왔습니다.

Ritzmann pointed out that since 2011 EXIT-Germany had also become engaged in tackling Islamic extremism which, he believes, shares  “some similarities” with right-wing extremism.

In a question and answer session, one audience member said it was crucial to tackle the sources of why people are radicalized rather than just the “symptoms.” After atrocities such as Paris, the “temptation”, is to offer a “crisis response” but a better approach would be finding and implementing longer-term solutions.

이슬람 극단주의를 촉발하는 이념인 이슬람주의에 대한 질문에 알 수와이즈는 이슬람 형제단의 이데올로기가 폭력적인 급진화의 주요 원천으로 점점 더 인식되고 있는 극도로 보수적인 와하비즘과 살라피스트 교리의 그것과 다르지 않다고 강조했습니다. MB 이데올로기는 와하비즘 및 살라피즘과 동일하며 정치적 이슬람/이슬람주의는 사회가 극단주의와 관련하여 안고 있는 모든 문제의 기초라고 그녀는 말했습니다. 정치적 이슬람은 앞으로 여러 세대에 걸쳐 사회 전반에 확산될 민주주의의 구조를 부식시킵니다.”라고 그녀는 덧붙였으며 이에 맞서는 것은 급진화와 폭력적인 극단주의를 해결하는 데 매우 중요합니다.

One audience member provided an example of good practice related to Spain the country that has seen the worst terrorist attack since WW2 – the Madrid train bombing in 2004 which killed 198 people.

최근 몇 년간 75,000명에서 900,000명으로 증가하는 등 자국 내 모로코인 수가 크게 증가했음에도 불구하고 스페인은 자국의 가장 큰 민족 집단인 모로코인을 주류 사회에 성공적으로 통합시켰습니다.

Concluding, Ritzmann said the “very timely” debate had given rise to several excellent ideas, including the role education can play in explaining the phenomenon of Islamic radicalization.

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